Имян Отчествович Фамильев (nomen_nescio) wrote,
Имян Отчествович Фамильев

Благословен устрожающий

“Blessed be the strict. Both [Hillel and Shammai] speak the words of the living God; but we must regulate ourselves according to the teachings of the School of Shammai”
Интересно, не правда ли? Это сказано в т.н. Барайте де-Нида, потрясающем тексте (впервые всплывающем в эпоху ранних гаонов), цитируемом Рамбаном на Бер. 31:35. Согласно этому тексту, слова ниды несут ритуальную нечистоту, а на её следы запрещено наступать, ибо это оскверняет. Крутизна.
BARAITA DE-NIDDAH, ancient work on ritual purity of
sectarian character, already known in the early geonic period.
It is mentioned in Sefer ha-Mikẓa’ot (cited in Aggur, sect. 1,
Or Zaru’a esct. 360), and in Naḥmanides’ commentary (Gen.
31:35), and is referred to by German-French talmudists of the
13t century, who were probably only indirectly acquainted
with it in a fragmentary fashion and were not clearly aware of
its sectarian nature. It was published in 1890 by C.M. Horowitz.
The baraita consists of aggadah and halakhah concerning
the biblical and post-biblical laws of the menstruant woman
(niddah; Lev. 15:19–33). There is no mention of any Babylonian
scholars and the chronology of tannaim and amoraim is
ignored. The tendency of the baraita is to oppose the lenient
rulings of the school of *Hillel and of R.*Akiva. The account
in the Talmud (Er. 13b; TJ, Ber. 1:7, 3b) of a heavenly voice deciding
in favor of the Hillelites is rendered in the baraita as
follows: “Blessed be the strict. Both [Hillel and Shammai]
speak the words of the living God; but we must regulate ourselves
according to the teachings of the School of Shammai”
(Horowitz, p. 21).
The baraita lays special stress on the laws of ritual cleanness,
particularly with regard to food. B.M. Lewin (Metivot
(1933), 108–12) points out that the stringencies referred to have
no basis in the Talmud, but did exist among Jews in Ereẓ Israel.
S. Lieberman, however, maintains that although some of the
baraita de-melekhet ha-mishkan passages are difficult to understand and were not accepted as
halakhah, a talmudic basis can be found for them (ibid., addition
to paragraph 78, p. 115–8). He is of the opinion that the
laws concerning ritual cleanness and uncleanness contained
in the baraita come from a rabbinic source in Ereẓ Israel and
not from the Samaritans or the Sadducees. There appears to
have been a section of the community in Ereẓ Israel that laid
great stress on the laws of cleanness, as is reflected in Samaritan
literature. It is possible that this baraita originated within
such a framework. However, there may also be Sabaeen influences
reflected in it. Thus, Maimonides, who rejects several
of the rulings listed in it, describes customs of the late Zoroastrians
(Guide 3:47) which bear definite affinities to some
customs mentioned in the baraita (cf. W.W. Malandra, An
Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion, 1986, pp. 173–75). Its
exact authorship and date of composition remain uncertain
to the present day.
Bibliography: C.M. Horowitz, Tosefata Attikata, 4 and
5 (1890). Add. Bibliography: S. Lieberman, Shekiin (1939); A.
Aptowitzer, Meḥkarim be-Sifrut ha-Ge’onim, (1941), 166; Sefer ha-
Ḥillukim, ed. M. Margaliot (1938), 135; M. Higger, Alim 3:3 (1938),
61–69; Y. Dinari, Tarbiz 49 (1980), 302–24; D. Sperber, Masekhet
Derekh Ereẓ Zuta (1994), 136.
[Michael James Goldman / Daniel Sperber (2nd ed.)] ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 3 128-129
Tags: еврейская традиция

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