Имян Отчествович Фамильев (nomen_nescio) wrote,
Имян Отчествович Фамильев
nomen_nescio

Об этроге (напомнить)

ETROG (Heb. אתְרֹוג )ֶ, citrus fruit among the Four Species
used on Sukkot.The Bible describes what is usually rendered
as “the fruit of a goodly tree” (peri eẓ hadar; Lev. 23:40), traditionally
interpreted as being the etrog (Citrus medica).The
word etrog, the name by which this fruit is known in talmudic
literature, derives, according to one view, from the Persian
torong, according to another, from the Sanskrit suranga,
meaning “beautifully colored.”Some maintain that the etrog
tree, along with its name, reached Ereẓ Israel only during the
Second Temple period, even as it was brought to Greece from
its native land, India, only after the campaigns of Alexander
the Great. Others contend that “the fruit of a goodly tree” is
to be identified with the Pinus or Cedrus, called dar in Sanskrit;
others say that what is meant is simply any beautiful (hadur) fruit.There is evidence that the etrog was known in
ancient Egypt; its use as one of the Four Species on Sukkot was
probably responsible for its wider cultivation in Ereẓ Israel in
olden days, for neighboring countries set no great store upon
its fruit, which is not particularly good. Indeed, even during
the Hasmonean period, which abounds in evidence of its cultivation
in Ereẓ Israel, the etrog was not grown in Italy and
is not mentioned by Pliny (23–79 C.E.) among the products
of that country.The etrog was formerly unique among the fruit trees
of Ereẓ Israel in requiring constant irrigation for its growth,
whereas the others were only occasionally irrigated, and then
only to increase their yield of fruit. This fact is adduced among
the various proofs that “the fruit of a goodly tree” (peri eẓ
hadar) is to be identified with the etrog, eẓ hadar being interpreted
as eẓ hiddur -hydor, that is, the tree which requires water.
[Jehuda Feliks]
ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 6, p. 540
Tags: Суккот, еврейские праздники и памятные дни
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